obj-y += foo.o
This document describes the Linux kernel Makefiles.
The Makefiles have five parts:
|Makefile||the top Makefile.|
|.config||the kernel configuration file.|
|arch/$(ARCH)/Makefile||the arch Makefile.|
|scripts/Makefile.*||common rules etc. for all kbuild Makefiles.|
|kbuild Makefiles||there are about 500 of these.|
The top Makefile reads the .config file, which comes from the kernel configuration process.
The top Makefile is responsible for building two major products: vmlinux (the resident kernel image) and modules (any module files). It builds these goals by recursively descending into the subdirectories of the kernel source tree. The list of subdirectories which are visited depends upon the kernel configuration. The top Makefile textually includes an arch Makefile with the name arch/$(ARCH)/Makefile. The arch Makefile supplies architecture-specific information to the top Makefile.
Each subdirectory has a kbuild Makefile which carries out the commands passed down from above. The kbuild Makefile uses information from the .config file to construct various file lists used by kbuild to build any built-in or modular targets.
scripts/Makefile.* contains all the definitions/rules etc. that are used to build the kernel based on the kbuild makefiles.
People have four different relationships with the kernel Makefiles.
are people who build kernels. These people type commands such as "make menuconfig" or "make". They usually do not read or edit any kernel Makefiles (or any other source files).
are people who work on features such as device drivers, file systems, and network protocols. These people need to maintain the kbuild Makefiles for the subsystem they are working on. In order to do this effectively, they need some overall knowledge about the kernel Makefiles, plus detailed knowledge about the public interface for kbuild.
are people who work on an entire architecture, such as sparc or ia64. Arch developers need to know about the arch Makefile as well as kbuild Makefiles.
are people who work on the kernel build system itself. These people need to know about all aspects of the kernel Makefiles.
This document is aimed towards normal developers and arch developers.
Most Makefiles within the kernel are kbuild Makefiles that use the kbuild infrastructure. This chapter introduces the syntax used in the kbuild makefiles. The preferred name for the kbuild files are Makefile but Kbuild can be used and if both a Makefile and a Kbuild file exists, then the Kbuild file will be used.
Section 3.1 "Goal definitions" is a quick intro, further chapters provide more details, with real examples.
Goal definitions are the main part (heart) of the kbuild Makefile. These lines define the files to be built, any special compilation options, and any subdirectories to be entered recursively.
The most simple kbuild makefile contains one line:
obj-y += foo.o
This tells kbuild that there is one object in that directory, named foo.o. foo.o will be built from foo.c or foo.S.
If foo.o shall be built as a module, the variable obj-m is used. Therefore the following pattern is often used:
obj-$(CONFIG_FOO) += foo.o
$(CONFIG_FOO) evaluates to either y (for built-in) or m (for module). If CONFIG_FOO is neither y nor m, then the file will not be compiled nor linked.
The kbuild Makefile specifies object files for vmlinux in the obj-y lists. These lists depend on the kernel configuration.
Kbuild compiles all the obj-y files. It then calls $(LD) -r to merge these files into one built-in.o file. built-in.o is later linked into vmlinux by the parent Makefile.
The order of files in obj-y is significant. Duplicates in the lists are allowed: the first instance will be linked into built-in.o and succeeding instances will be ignored.
Link order is significant, because certain functions (module_init() / __initcall) will be called during boot in the order they appear. So keep in mind that changing the link order may e.g. change the order in which your SCSI controllers are detected, and thus your disks are renumbered.
#drivers/isdn/i4l/Makefile # Makefile for the kernel ISDN subsystem and device drivers. # Each configuration option enables a list of files. obj-$(CONFIG_ISDN) += isdn.o obj-$(CONFIG_ISDN_PPP_BSDCOMP) += isdn_bsdcomp.o
obj-m specify object files which are built as loadable kernel modules.
A module may be built from one source file or several source files. In the case of one source file, the kbuild makefile simply adds the file to obj-m.
#drivers/isdn/i4l/Makefile obj-$(CONFIG_ISDN_PPP_BSDCOMP) += isdn_bsdcomp.o
Note: In this example $(CONFIG_ISDN_PPP_BSDCOMP) evaluates to m
If a kernel module is built from several source files, you specify that you want to build a module in the same way as above.
Kbuild needs to know which the parts that you want to build your module from, so you have to tell it by setting an <module_name>-objs variable.
#drivers/isdn/i4l/Makefile obj-$(CONFIG_ISDN) += isdn.o isdn-objs := isdn_net_lib.o isdn_v110.o isdn_common.o
In this example, the module name will be isdn.o. Kbuild will compile the objects listed in isdn-objs and then run $(LD) -r on the list of these files to generate isdn.o.
Kbuild recognises objects used for composite objects by the suffix -objs, and the suffix -y. This allows the Makefiles to use the value of a CONFIG_ symbol to determine if an object is part of a composite object.
#fs/ext2/Makefile obj-$(CONFIG_EXT2_FS) += ext2.o ext2-y := balloc.o bitmap.o ext2-$(CONFIG_EXT2_FS_XATTR) += xattr.o
In this example, xattr.o is only part of the composite object ext2.o if $(CONFIG_EXT2_FS_XATTR) evaluates to y.
Note: Of course, when you are building objects into the kernel, the syntax above will also work. So, if you have CONFIG_EXT2_FS=y, kbuild will build an ext2.o file for you out of the individual parts and then link this into built-in.o, as you would expect.
No special notation is required in the makefiles for modules exporting symbols.
Objects listed with obj-* are used for modules, or combined in a built-in.o for that specific directory. There is also the possibility to list objects that will be included in a library, lib.a. All objects listed with lib-y are combined in a single library for that directory. Objects that are listed in obj-y and additionally listed in lib-y will not be included in the library, since they will be accessible anyway. For consistency, objects listed in lib-m will be included in lib.a.
Note that the same kbuild makefile may list files to be built-in and to be part of a library. Therefore the same directory may contain both a built-in.o and a lib.a file.
#arch/i386/lib/Makefile lib-y := checksum.o delay.o
This will create a library lib.a based on checksum.o and delay.o. For kbuild to actually recognize that there is a lib.a being built, the directory shall be listed in libs-y. See also "6.3 List directories to visit when descending".
Use of lib-y is normally restricted to lib/ and arch/*/lib.
A Makefile is only responsible for building objects in its own directory. Files in subdirectories should be taken care of by Makefiles in these subdirs. The build system will automatically invoke make recursively in subdirectories, provided you let it know of them.
To do so, obj-y and obj-m are used. ext2 lives in a separate directory, and the Makefile present in fs/ tells kbuild to descend down using the following assignment.
Example: #fs/Makefile obj-$(CONFIG_EXT2_FS) += ext2/
If CONFIG_EXT2_FS is set to either 'y' (built-in) or 'm' (modular) the corresponding obj- variable will be set, and kbuild will descend down in the ext2 directory. Kbuild only uses this information to decide that it needs to visit the directory, it is the Makefile in the subdirectory that specifies what is modules and what is built-in.
It is good practice to use a CONFIG_ variable when assigning directory names. This allows kbuild to totally skip the directory if the corresponding CONFIG_ option is neither 'y' nor 'm'.
EXTRA_CFLAGS, EXTRA_AFLAGS, EXTRA_LDFLAGS, EXTRA_ARFLAGS
All the EXTRA_ variables apply only to the kbuild makefile where they are assigned. The EXTRA_ variables apply to all commands executed in the kbuild makefile.
$(EXTRA_CFLAGS) specifies options for compiling C files with $(CC).
Example: # drivers/sound/emu10k1/Makefile EXTRA_CFLAGS += -I$(obj) ifdef DEBUG EXTRA_CFLAGS += -DEMU10K1_DEBUG endif
This variable is necessary because the top Makefile owns the variable $(CFLAGS) and uses it for compilation flags for the entire tree.
$(EXTRA_AFLAGS) is a similar string for per-directory options when compiling assembly language source.
Example: #arch/x86_64/kernel/Makefile EXTRA_AFLAGS := -traditional
$(EXTRA_LDFLAGS) and $(EXTRA_ARFLAGS) are similar strings for per-directory options to $(LD) and $(AR).
Example: #arch/m68k/fpsp040/Makefile EXTRA_LDFLAGS := -x
CFLAGS_$@ and AFLAGS_$@ only apply to commands in current kbuild makefile.
$(CFLAGS_$@) specifies per-file options for $(CC). The $@ part has a literal value which specifies the file that it is for.
Example: # drivers/scsi/Makefile CFLAGS_aha152x.o = -DAHA152X_STAT -DAUTOCONF CFLAGS_gdth.o = # -DDEBUG_GDTH=2 -D__SERIAL__ -D__COM2__ \ -DGDTH_STATISTICS CFLAGS_seagate.o = -DARBITRATE -DPARITY -DSEAGATE_USE_ASM
These three lines specify compilation flags for aha152x.o, gdth.o, and seagate.o
$(AFLAGS_$@) is a similar feature for source files in assembly languages.
Example: # arch/arm/kernel/Makefile AFLAGS_head-armv.o := -DTEXTADDR=$(TEXTADDR) -traditional AFLAGS_head-armo.o := -DTEXTADDR=$(TEXTADDR) -traditional
Kbuild tracks dependencies on the following: 1) All prerequisite files (both *.c and *.h) 2) CONFIG_ options used in all prerequisite files 3) Command-line used to compile target
Thus, if you change an option to $(CC) all affected files will be re-compiled.
Special rules are used when the kbuild infrastructure does not provide the required support. A typical example is header files generated during the build process. Another example are the architecture-specific Makefiles which need special rules to prepare boot images etc.
Special rules are written as normal Make rules. Kbuild is not executing in the directory where the Makefile is located, so all special rules shall provide a relative path to prerequisite files and target files.
Two variables are used when defining special rules:
$(src) $(src) is a relative path which points to the directory where the Makefile is located. Always use $(src) when referring to files located in the src tree.
$(obj) $(obj) is a relative path which points to the directory where the target is saved. Always use $(obj) when referring to generated files.
Example: #drivers/scsi/Makefile $(obj)/53c8xx_d.h: $(src)/53c7,8xx.scr $(src)/script_asm.pl $(CPP) -DCHIP=810 - < $< | ... $(src)/script_asm.pl
This is a special rule, following the normal syntax required by make. The target file depends on two prerequisite files. References to the target file are prefixed with $(obj), references to prerequisites are referenced with $(src) (because they are not generated files).
The kernel may be built with several different versions of $(CC), each supporting a unique set of features and options. kbuild provide basic support to check for valid options for $(CC). $(CC) is usually the gcc compiler, but other alternatives are available.
as-option as-option is used to check if $(CC) -- when used to compile assembler (*.S) files -- supports the given option. An optional second option may be specified if the first option is not supported.
Example: #arch/sh/Makefile cflags-y += $(call as-option,-Wa$(comma)-isa=$(isa-y),)
In the above example, cflags-y will be assigned the option -Wa$(comma)-isa=$(isa-y) if it is supported by $(CC). The second argument is optional, and if supplied will be used if first argument is not supported.
ld-option ld-option is used to check if $(CC) when used to link object files supports the given option. An optional second option may be specified if first option are not supported.
Example: #arch/i386/kernel/Makefile vsyscall-flags += $(call ld-option, -Wl$(comma)--hash-style=sysv)
In the above example, vsyscall-flags will be assigned the option -Wl$(comma)--hash-style=sysv if it is supported by $(CC). The second argument is optional, and if supplied will be used if first argument is not supported.
as-instr as-instr checks if the assembler reports a specific instruction and then outputs either option1 or option2 C escapes are supported in the test instruction
cc-option cc-option is used to check if $(CC) supports a given option, and not supported to use an optional second option.
Example: #arch/i386/Makefile cflags-y += $(call cc-option,-march=pentium-mmx,-march=i586)
In the above example, cflags-y will be assigned the option -march=pentium-mmx if supported by $(CC), otherwise -march=i586. The second argument to cc-option is optional, and if omitted, cflags-y will be assigned no value if first option is not supported.
cc-option-yn cc-option-yn is used to check if gcc supports a given option and return 'y' if supported, otherwise 'n'.
Example: #arch/ppc/Makefile biarch := $(call cc-option-yn, -m32) aflags-$(biarch) += -a32 cflags-$(biarch) += -m32
In the above example, $(biarch) is set to y if $(CC) supports the -m32 option. When $(biarch) equals 'y', the expanded variables $(aflags-y) and $(cflags-y) will be assigned the values -a32 and -m32, respectively.
cc-option-align gcc versions >= 3.0 changed the type of options used to specify alignment of functions, loops etc. $(cc-option-align), when used as prefix to the align options, will select the right prefix: gcc < 3.00 cc-option-align = -malign gcc >= 3.00 cc-option-align = -falign
Example: CFLAGS += $(cc-option-align)-functions=4
In the above example, the option -falign-functions=4 is used for gcc >= 3.00. For gcc < 3.00, -malign-functions=4 is used.
cc-version cc-version returns a numerical version of the $(CC) compiler version. The format is <major><minor> where both are two digits. So for example gcc 3.41 would return 0341. cc-version is useful when a specific $(CC) version is faulty in one area, for example -mregparm=3 was broken in some gcc versions even though the option was accepted by gcc.
Example: #arch/i386/Makefile cflags-y += $(shell \ if [ $(call cc-version) -ge 0300 ] ; then \ echo "-mregparm=3"; fi ;)
In the above example, -mregparm=3 is only used for gcc version greater than or equal to gcc 3.0.
cc-ifversion cc-ifversion tests the version of $(CC) and equals last argument if version expression is true.
Example: #fs/reiserfs/Makefile EXTRA_CFLAGS := $(call cc-ifversion, -lt, 0402, -O1)
In this example, EXTRA_CFLAGS will be assigned the value -O1 if the $(CC) version is less than 4.2. cc-ifversion takes all the shell operators: -eq, -ne, -lt, -le, -gt, and -ge The third parameter may be a text as in this example, but it may also be an expanded variable or a macro.
cc-fullversion cc-fullversion is useful when the exact version of gcc is needed. One typical use-case is when a specific GCC version is broken. cc-fullversion points out a more specific version than cc-version does.
Example: #arch/powerpc/Makefile $(Q)if test "$(call cc-fullversion)" = "040200" ; then \ echo -n '*** GCC-4.2.0 cannot compile the 64-bit powerpc ' ; \ false ; \ fi
In this example for a specific GCC version the build will error out explaining to the user why it stops.
Kbuild supports building executables on the host for use during the compilation stage. Two steps are required in order to use a host executable.
The first step is to tell kbuild that a host program exists. This is done utilising the variable hostprogs-y.
The second step is to add an explicit dependency to the executable. This can be done in two ways. Either add the dependency in a rule, or utilise the variable $(always). Both possibilities are described in the following.
In some cases there is a need to compile and run a program on the computer where the build is running. The following line tells kbuild that the program bin2hex shall be built on the build host.
Example: hostprogs-y := bin2hex
Kbuild assumes in the above example that bin2hex is made from a single c-source file named bin2hex.c located in the same directory as the Makefile.
Host programs can be made up based on composite objects. The syntax used to define composite objects for host programs is similar to the syntax used for kernel objects. $(<executable>-objs) lists all objects used to link the final executable.
Example: #scripts/lxdialog/Makefile hostprogs-y := lxdialog lxdialog-objs := checklist.o lxdialog.o
Objects with extension .o are compiled from the corresponding .c files. In the above example, checklist.c is compiled to checklist.o and lxdialog.c is compiled to lxdialog.o. Finally, the two .o files are linked to the executable, lxdialog. Note: The syntax <executable>-y is not permitted for host-programs.
Objects with extension .so are considered shared libraries, and will be compiled as position independent objects. Kbuild provides support for shared libraries, but the usage shall be restricted. In the following example the libkconfig.so shared library is used to link the executable conf.
Example: #scripts/kconfig/Makefile hostprogs-y := conf conf-objs := conf.o libkconfig.so libkconfig-objs := expr.o type.o
Shared libraries always require a corresponding -objs line, and in the example above the shared library libkconfig is composed by the two objects expr.o and type.o. expr.o and type.o will be built as position independent code and linked as a shared library libkconfig.so. C++ is not supported for shared libraries.
kbuild offers support for host programs written in C++. This was introduced solely to support kconfig, and is not recommended for general use.
Example: #scripts/kconfig/Makefile hostprogs-y := qconf qconf-cxxobjs := qconf.o
In the example above the executable is composed of the C++ file qconf.cc - identified by $(qconf-cxxobjs).
If qconf is composed by a mixture of .c and .cc files, then an additional line can be used to identify this.
Example: #scripts/kconfig/Makefile hostprogs-y := qconf qconf-cxxobjs := qconf.o qconf-objs := check.o
When compiling host programs, it is possible to set specific flags. The programs will always be compiled utilising $(HOSTCC) passed the options specified in $(HOSTCFLAGS). To set flags that will take effect for all host programs created in that Makefile, use the variable HOST_EXTRACFLAGS.
Example: #scripts/lxdialog/Makefile HOST_EXTRACFLAGS += -I/usr/include/ncurses
To set specific flags for a single file the following construction is used:
Example: #arch/ppc64/boot/Makefile HOSTCFLAGS_piggyback.o := -DKERNELBASE=$(KERNELBASE)
It is also possible to specify additional options to the linker.
Example: #scripts/kconfig/Makefile HOSTLOADLIBES_qconf := -L$(QTDIR)/lib
When linking qconf, it will be passed the extra option "-L$(QTDIR)/lib".
Kbuild will only build host-programs when they are referenced as a prerequisite. This is possible in two ways:
(1) List the prerequisite explicitly in a special rule.
Example: #drivers/pci/Makefile hostprogs-y := gen-devlist $(obj)/devlist.h: $(src)/pci.ids $(obj)/gen-devlist ( cd $(obj); ./gen-devlist ) < $<
The target $(obj)/devlist.h will not be built before $(obj)/gen-devlist is updated. Note that references to the host programs in special rules must be prefixed with $(obj).
(2) Use $(always) When there is no suitable special rule, and the host program shall be built when a makefile is entered, the $(always) variable shall be used.
Example: #scripts/lxdialog/Makefile hostprogs-y := lxdialog always := $(hostprogs-y)
This will tell kbuild to build lxdialog even if not referenced in any rule.
A typical pattern in a Kbuild file looks like this:
Example: #scripts/Makefile hostprogs-$(CONFIG_KALLSYMS) += kallsyms
Kbuild knows about both 'y' for built-in and 'm' for module. So if a config symbol evaluate to 'm', kbuild will still build the binary. In other words, Kbuild handles hostprogs-m exactly like hostprogs-y. But only hostprogs-y is recommended to be used when no CONFIG symbols are involved.
"make clean" deletes most generated files in the obj tree where the kernel is compiled. This includes generated files such as host programs. Kbuild knows targets listed in $(hostprogs-y), $(hostprogs-m), $(always), $(extra-y) and $(targets). They are all deleted during "make clean". Files matching the patterns ".[oas]", ".ko", plus some additional files generated by kbuild are deleted all over the kernel src tree when "make clean" is executed.
Additional files can be specified in kbuild makefiles by use of $(clean-files).
Example: #drivers/pci/Makefile clean-files := devlist.h classlist.h
When executing "make clean", the two files "devlist.h classlist.h" will be deleted. Kbuild will assume files to be in same relative directory as the Makefile except if an absolute path is specified (path starting with /).
To delete a directory hierarchy use:
Example: #scripts/package/Makefile clean-dirs := $(objtree)/debian/
This will delete the directory debian, including all subdirectories. Kbuild will assume the directories to be in the same relative path as the Makefile if no absolute path is specified (path does not start with /).
Usually kbuild descends down in subdirectories due to "obj-* := dir/", but in the architecture makefiles where the kbuild infrastructure is not sufficient this sometimes needs to be explicit.
Example: #arch/i386/boot/Makefile subdir- := compressed/
The above assignment instructs kbuild to descend down in the directory compressed/ when "make clean" is executed.
To support the clean infrastructure in the Makefiles that builds the final bootimage there is an optional target named archclean:
Example: #arch/i386/Makefile archclean: $(Q)$(MAKE) $(clean)=arch/i386/boot
When "make clean" is executed, make will descend down in arch/i386/boot, and clean as usual. The Makefile located in arch/i386/boot/ may use the subdir- trick to descend further down.
Note 1: arch/$(ARCH)/Makefile cannot use "subdir-", because that file is included in the top level makefile, and the kbuild infrastructure is not operational at that point.
Note 2: All directories listed in core-y, libs-y, drivers-y and net-y will be visited during "make clean".
The top level Makefile sets up the environment and does the preparation, before starting to descend down in the individual directories. The top level makefile contains the generic part, whereas arch/$(ARCH)/Makefile contains what is required to set up kbuild for said architecture. To do so, arch/$(ARCH)/Makefile sets up a number of variables and defines a few targets.
When kbuild executes, the following steps are followed (roughly): 1) Configuration of the kernel => produce .config 2) Store kernel version in include/linux/version.h 3) Symlink include/asm to include/asm-$(ARCH) 4) Updating all other prerequisites to the target prepare: - Additional prerequisites are specified in arch/$(ARCH)/Makefile 5) Recursively descend down in all directories listed in init- core drivers- net- libs-* and build all targets. - The values of the above variables are expanded in arch/$(ARCH)/Makefile. 6) All object files are then linked and the resulting file vmlinux is located at the root of the obj tree. The very first objects linked are listed in head-y, assigned by arch/$(ARCH)/Makefile. 7) Finally, the architecture-specific part does any required post processing and builds the final bootimage. - This includes building boot records - Preparing initrd images and the like
LDFLAGS Generic $(LD) options
Flags used for all invocations of the linker. Often specifying the emulation is sufficient.
Example: #arch/s390/Makefile LDFLAGS := -m elf_s390 Note: EXTRA_LDFLAGS and LDFLAGS_$@ can be used to further customise the flags used. See chapter 7.
LDFLAGS_MODULE Options for $(LD) when linking modules
LDFLAGS_MODULE is used to set specific flags for $(LD) when linking the .ko files used for modules. Default is "-r", for relocatable output.
LDFLAGS_vmlinux Options for $(LD) when linking vmlinux
LDFLAGS_vmlinux is used to specify additional flags to pass to the linker when linking the final vmlinux image. LDFLAGS_vmlinux uses the LDFLAGS_$@ support.
Example: #arch/i386/Makefile LDFLAGS_vmlinux := -e stext
OBJCOPYFLAGS objcopy flags
When $(call if_changed,objcopy) is used to translate a .o file, the flags specified in OBJCOPYFLAGS will be used. $(call if_changed,objcopy) is often used to generate raw binaries on vmlinux.
Example: #arch/s390/Makefile OBJCOPYFLAGS := -O binary
#arch/s390/boot/Makefile $(obj)/image: vmlinux FORCE $(call if_changed,objcopy)
In this example, the binary $(obj)/image is a binary version of vmlinux. The usage of $(call if_changed,xxx) will be described later.
AFLAGS $(AS) assembler flags
Default value - see top level Makefile Append or modify as required per architecture.
Example: #arch/sparc64/Makefile AFLAGS += -m64 -mcpu=ultrasparc
CFLAGS $(CC) compiler flags
Default value - see top level Makefile Append or modify as required per architecture.
Often, the CFLAGS variable depends on the configuration.
Example: #arch/i386/Makefile cflags-$(CONFIG_M386) += -march=i386 CFLAGS += $(cflags-y)
Many arch Makefiles dynamically run the target C compiler to probe supported options:
... cflags-$(CONFIG_MPENTIUMII) += $(call cc-option,\ -march=pentium2,-march=i686) ... # Disable unit-at-a-time mode ... CFLAGS += $(call cc-option,-fno-unit-at-a-time) ...
The first example utilises the trick that a config option expands to 'y' when selected.
CFLAGS_KERNEL $(CC) options specific for built-in
$(CFLAGS_KERNEL) contains extra C compiler flags used to compile resident kernel code.
CFLAGS_MODULE $(CC) options specific for modules
$(CFLAGS_MODULE) contains extra C compiler flags used to compile code for loadable kernel modules.
The archprepare: rule is used to list prerequisites that need to be built before starting to descend down in the subdirectories. This is usually used for header files containing assembler constants.
Example: #arch/arm/Makefile archprepare: maketools
In this example, the file target maketools will be processed before descending down in the subdirectories. See also chapter XXX-TODO that describe how kbuild supports generating offset header files.
An arch Makefile cooperates with the top Makefile to define variables which specify how to build the vmlinux file. Note that there is no corresponding arch-specific section for modules; the module-building machinery is all architecture-independent.
head-y, init-y, core-y, libs-y, drivers-y, net-y
$(head-y) lists objects to be linked first in vmlinux. $(libs-y) lists directories where a lib.a archive can be located. The rest list directories where a built-in.o object file can be located.
$(init-y) objects will be located after $(head-y). Then the rest follows in this order: $(core-y), $(libs-y), $(drivers-y) and $(net-y).
The top level Makefile defines values for all generic directories, and arch/$(ARCH)/Makefile only adds architecture-specific directories.
Example: #arch/sparc64/Makefile core-y += arch/sparc64/kernel/ libs-y += arch/sparc64/prom/ arch/sparc64/lib/ drivers-$(CONFIG_OPROFILE) += arch/sparc64/oprofile/
An arch Makefile specifies goals that take the vmlinux file, compress it, wrap it in bootstrapping code, and copy the resulting files somewhere. This includes various kinds of installation commands. The actual goals are not standardized across architectures.
It is common to locate any additional processing in a boot/ directory below arch/$(ARCH)/.
Kbuild does not provide any smart way to support building a target specified in boot/. Therefore arch/$(ARCH)/Makefile shall call make manually to build a target in boot/.
The recommended approach is to include shortcuts in arch/$(ARCH)/Makefile, and use the full path when calling down into the arch/$(ARCH)/boot/Makefile.
Example: #arch/i386/Makefile boot := arch/i386/boot bzImage: vmlinux $(Q)$(MAKE) $(build)=$(boot) $(boot)/$@
"$(Q)$(MAKE) $(build)=<dir>" is the recommended way to invoke make in a subdirectory.
There are no rules for naming architecture-specific targets, but executing "make help" will list all relevant targets. To support this, $(archhelp) must be defined.
Example: #arch/i386/Makefile define archhelp echo '* bzImage - Image (arch/$(ARCH)/boot/bzImage)' endif
When make is executed without arguments, the first goal encountered will be built. In the top level Makefile the first goal present is all:. An architecture shall always, per default, build a bootable image. In "make help", the default goal is highlighted with a '*'. Add a new prerequisite to all: to select a default goal different from vmlinux.
Example: #arch/i386/Makefile all: bzImage
When "make" is executed without arguments, bzImage will be built.
extra-y specify additional targets created in the current directory, in addition to any targets specified by obj-*.
Listing all targets in extra-y is required for two purposes: 1) Enable kbuild to check changes in command lines - When $(call if_changed,xxx) is used 2) kbuild knows what files to delete during "make clean"
Example: #arch/i386/kernel/Makefile extra-y := head.o init_task.o
In this example, extra-y is used to list object files that shall be built, but shall not be linked as part of built-in.o.
Kbuild provides a few macros that are useful when building a boot image.
if_changed is the infrastructure used for the following commands.
Usage: target: source(s) FORCE $(call if_changed,ld/objcopy/gzip)
When the rule is evaluated, it is checked to see if any files need an update, or the command line has changed since the last invocation. The latter will force a rebuild if any options to the executable have changed. Any target that utilises if_changed must be listed in $(targets), otherwise the command line check will fail, and the target will always be built. Assignments to $(targets) are without $(obj)/ prefix. if_changed may be used in conjunction with custom commands as defined in 6.7 "Custom kbuild commands".
Note: It is a typical mistake to forget the FORCE prerequisite. Another common pitfall is that whitespace is sometimes significant; for instance, the below will fail (note the extra space after the comma): target: source(s) FORCE #WRONG!# $(call if_changed, ld/objcopy/gzip)
ld Link target. Often, LDFLAGS_$@ is used to set specific options to ld.
objcopy Copy binary. Uses OBJCOPYFLAGS usually specified in arch/$(ARCH)/Makefile. OBJCOPYFLAGS_$@ may be used to set additional options.
gzip Compress target. Use maximum compression to compress target.
Example: #arch/i386/boot/Makefile LDFLAGS_bootsect := -Ttext 0x0 -s --oformat binary LDFLAGS_setup := -Ttext 0x0 -s --oformat binary -e begtext
targets += setup setup.o bootsect bootsect.o $(obj)/setup $(obj)/bootsect: %: %.o FORCE $(call if_changed,ld)
In this example, there are two possible targets, requiring different options to the linker. The linker options are specified using the LDFLAGS_$@ syntax - one for each potential target. $(targets) are assigned all potential targets, by which kbuild knows the targets and will: 1) check for commandline changes 2) delete target during make clean
The ": %: %.o" part of the prerequisite is a shorthand that free us from listing the setup.o and bootsect.o files. Note: It is a common mistake to forget the "target :=" assignment, resulting in the target file being recompiled for no obvious reason.
When kbuild is executing with KBUILD_VERBOSE=0, then only a shorthand of a command is normally displayed. To enable this behaviour for custom commands kbuild requires two variables to be set: quiet_cmd_<command> - what shall be echoed cmd_<command> - the command to execute
Example: # quiet_cmd_image = BUILD $@ cmd_image = $(obj)/tools/build $(BUILDFLAGS) \ $(obj)/vmlinux.bin > $@
targets += bzImage $(obj)/bzImage: $(obj)/vmlinux.bin $(obj)/tools/build FORCE $(call if_changed,image) @echo 'Kernel: $@ is ready'
When updating the $(obj)/bzImage target, the line
will be displayed with "make KBUILD_VERBOSE=0".
When the vmlinux image is built, the linker script arch/$(ARCH)/kernel/vmlinux.lds is used. The script is a preprocessed variant of the file vmlinux.lds.S located in the same directory. kbuild knows .lds files and includes a rule *lds.S -> *lds.
Example: #arch/i386/kernel/Makefile always := vmlinux.lds
#Makefile export CPPFLAGS_vmlinux.lds += -P -C -U$(ARCH)
The assignment to $(always) is used to tell kbuild to build the target vmlinux.lds. The assignment to $(CPPFLAGS_vmlinux.lds) tells kbuild to use the specified options when building the target vmlinux.lds.
When building the *.lds target, kbuild uses the variables: CPPFLAGS : Set in top-level Makefile EXTRA_CPPFLAGS : May be set in the kbuild makefile CPPFLAGS_$(@F) : Target specific flags. Note that the full filename is used in this assignment.
The kbuild infrastructure for *lds file are used in several architecture-specific files.
The top Makefile exports the following variables:
VERSION, PATCHLEVEL, SUBLEVEL, EXTRAVERSION
These variables define the current kernel version. A few arch Makefiles actually use these values directly; they should use $(KERNELRELEASE) instead.
$(VERSION), $(PATCHLEVEL), and $(SUBLEVEL) define the basic three-part version number, such as "2", "4", and "0". These three values are always numeric.
$(EXTRAVERSION) defines an even tinier sublevel for pre-patches or additional patches. It is usually some non-numeric string such as "-pre4", and is often blank.
$(KERNELRELEASE) is a single string such as "2.4.0-pre4", suitable for constructing installation directory names or showing in version strings. Some arch Makefiles use it for this purpose.
This variable defines the target architecture, such as "i386", "arm", or "sparc". Some kbuild Makefiles test $(ARCH) to determine which files to compile.
By default, the top Makefile sets $(ARCH) to be the same as the host system architecture. For a cross build, a user may override the value of $(ARCH) on the command line:
make ARCH=m68k ...
This variable defines a place for the arch Makefiles to install the resident kernel image and System.map file. Use this for architecture-specific install targets.
$(INSTALL_MOD_PATH) specifies a prefix to $(MODLIB) for module installation. This variable is not defined in the Makefile but may be passed in by the user if desired.
$(MODLIB) specifies the directory for module installation. The top Makefile defines $(MODLIB) to $(INSTALL_MOD_PATH)/lib/modules/$(KERNELRELEASE). The user may override this value on the command line if desired.
If this variable is specified, will cause modules to be stripped after they are installed. If INSTALL_MOD_STRIP is '1', then the default option --strip-debug will be used. Otherwise, INSTALL_MOD_STRIP will used as the option(s) to the strip command.
The kernel Makefiles are designed to be run with GNU Make. The Makefiles use only the documented features of GNU Make, but they do use many GNU extensions.
GNU Make supports elementary list-processing functions. The kernel Makefiles use a novel style of list building and manipulation with few "if" statements.
GNU Make has two assignment operators, ":=" and "=". ":=" performs immediate evaluation of the right-hand side and stores an actual string into the left-hand side. "=" is like a formula definition; it stores the right-hand side in an unevaluated form and then evaluates this form each time the left-hand side is used.
There are some cases where "=" is appropriate. Usually, though, ":=" is the right choice.
Original version made by Michael Elizabeth Chastain, <mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org> Updates by Kai Germaschewski <email@example.com> Updates by Sam Ravnborg <firstname.lastname@example.org> Language QA by Jan Engelhardt <email@example.com>
Describe how kbuild supports shipped files with _shipped.
Generating offset header files.
Add more variables to section 7?